The Spanish Political Attitudes Panel Dataset, also known as the POLAT Panel, is an original database developed by the Democracy, Elections & Citizenship research group to measure and explain changes in individuals’ political attitudes and behaviors. The dataset is particularly advantageous as it employs a panel structure, thus enabling the precise measurement of intra-individual attitudinal change over time. To date, a rich body of data corresponding to the first six waves of the panel has been published. They can be downloaded here and cited as follows:

Hernández Pérez, E., Galais Gonzàlez, C., Rico, G., Muñoz, J., Hierro, M. J., Pannico, R., Barbet, B., Marinova, D., & Anduiza Perea, E. (2021). POLAT Project. Spanish Political Attitudes Panel Dataset (Waves 1-6).

These waves were fielded between 2010 and 2014, thereby spanning a particularly tumultuous period in Spain marked by an economic crisis, political scandals, and widespread civil unrest. As such, this publicly available data allows interested researchers to explore changes taking place while major events were occurring—such as the eurozone crisis, the 15-M Movement, the Gürtel case, or ETA’s disbanding declaration. The first four waves of the panel were carried out in collaboration with the CIS (Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas). The panel is still ongoing with support from different projects financed by the Agencia Española de Investigación and Icrea. The next release of data is currently under preparation and will include waves 7 to 10.



Anduiza, E., & Guillem R. (2022). Sexism and the far-right vote: the individual dynamics of gender backlash. American Journal of Political Science.

Hernández, E., & Galais, C. (2022). The long-lasting effects of citizenship education. West European Politics, 45(5), 1130-1152.

Jungkunz, S., & Marx, P. (2022). Income changes do not influence political involvement in panel data from six countries. European journal of political research, 61(3), 829-841.

Pannico, R., & Anduiza, E. (2022). On time and meaningful partisanship: Stability, strength, and sway of attachment to new parties. Party Politics, 13540688221085235.


Díaz, A. M., Galais, C., & Perea, E. A. (2021). Ya éramos diferentes: Los efectos del 15M sobre las actitudes políticas. In Tras la indignación: el 15M: miradas desde el presente (pp. 47-62). Gedisa.

Portos, Martín. 2021. Grievances and Public Protests: Political Mobilisation in Spain in the Age of Austerity. Cham: Springer International Publishing. 

Wehl, N. (2021). Unemployment and Labour Market Policy Attitudes: Political Predispositions, Economic Self-Interest, and Questions of Causality (Doctoral dissertation, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg, Fakultät Sozial-und Wirtschaftswissenschaften).


Anduiza, E., & Pannico, R. (2020). Attitudinal consequences of partisanship for new parties. In Research Handbook on Political Partisanship (pp. 281-293). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Feitosa, F., & Galais, C. (2020). How stable is the sense of civic duty to vote? A panel study on the individual-level stability of the attitude.

Hernández, E., & Pannico, R. (2020). The impact of EU institutional advertising on public support for European Integration. European Union Politics, 22(4), 569–589


Rico, G., & Anduiza, E. (2019). Economic correlates of populist attitudes: an analysis of nine European countries in the aftermath of the great recession. Acta Politica 54, 371-397


Anduiza, E., & Galais, C. (2017). Answering without reading: IMCs and strong satisficing in online surveys. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 29(3), 497-519.

Galais, C., & Lorenzini, J. (2017). Half a loaf is (not) better than none: How austerity-related grievances and emotions triggered protests in Spain. Mobilization, 22(1), 77-95.

Rico, G., Guinjoan, M., & Anduiza, E. (2017). The emotional underpinnings of populism: How anger and fear affect populist attitudes. Swiss Political Science Review, 23(4), 444-461.


Galais, C., & Blais, A. (2016). Beyond rationalization: Voting out of duty or expressing duty after voting? International Political Science Review, 37(2), 213-229.


Galais, C., & Blais, A. (2014). A call of duty in hard times: Duty to vote and the Spanish Economic Crisis. Research & Politics, 1(2), 2053168014540605.

Muñoz, J., Anduiza, E., & Rico, G. (2014). Empowering cuts? Austerity policies and political involvement in Spain. In How welfare states shape the democratic public. Edward Elgar Publishing.